Today, Voltaic Minerals Corp. outlined a first work program for its Green Energy Project in Utah. There is something that sets this lithium brine project apart from most other brine “exploration” projects. Today’s announced short work program is designed to localize precise targets for immediate deep drilling of wells that can be used for potential future production. Look at the recent share price increase of 92 Resources Corp. releasing favourable lithium grades. What do we learn from that? To better get in early, that is to say before such a success is accomplished. This may hold especially true for Voltaic having started a short but important program today. Voltaic is opined to be dirt cheap thanks to most not understanding what they have or do. More than 100 oil wells have been drilled in and around the Green Energy Property. That’s why most think Voltaic is dealing with “oil field brines”, which are considered widely as uneconomic. Others are criticizing that high magnesium grades in brines are a project killer. Time will tell who will be proven right, and that time may come faster than many may think. Voltaic is getting ready for deep drilling of production-style wells. It’s not so much about exploration but more about modelling and engineering. Multi-element metallurgy? Not a problem these days but rather a highly lucrative opportunity, especially for someone like Albemarle with lithium prices trading as high as today. The time to get into Voltaic is opined to be now as the company today started running towards well drilling and resource estimate. Voltaic is refreshingly different. The market will (eventually) understand and honour this. Maybe even today as this report includes quite an enlightning interview.
Voltaic Minerals Corp. (formerly Prima Diamond Corp.) acquired the Green Energy property in February 2016 from Foster Wilson’s Mesa Exploration. Historic well drilling in the area around the Green Energy property showed extremely high lithium grades with up to 1,700 mg/L. Some brine wells reached the surface under the natural pressure of the aquifer (i.e. without pumps). Such a lithium grade would be 6 times more than one of Albemarle‘s best past wells in the Clayton Valley (~310 mg/L) and 17 times more than Pure Energy‘s average resource grade (~102 mg/L).
A decrease in lithium grades and resources from Nevada’s Clayton Valley brines is prompting juniors to look elsewhere in North America for exploitable resources of lithium. Moreover, the question arises of how many new lithium mines the state of Nevada would permit as water consumption may become problematic with more than one lithium mine in operation at the Clayton Valley.
The Potash Brine Ponds from Intrepid Potash Inc. in front of the Cane Creek Anticline in Utah:
Recently, Albemarle Corp., operator of North-America’s only lithium mine (in Nevada’s Clayton Valley), filed a detailed protest letter with Nevada’s government, basically demanding that no further water right should be issued and that any further pumping in the Clayton Valley would destroy the entire lithium deposit at depth. Albemarle’s Silver Peak Lithium Mine is in uninterrupted production since the 1960s and as such the lithium grades have diminished from an original >400 mg/L to an estimated 100-200 mg/L today. As such, the deposit may be nearing depletion.
Rockstone opines Utah being a prime candidate to fill the emerging lithium mine supply deficit in the US as Tesla’s Elon Musk has stated in the past to source lithium “locally”, if available.
Historic drilling in the Green Energy Property area encountered brines at 1,833 m depth and it was recorded that the artesian brine flow was so strong that drilling had to be suspended after penetrating only 2 m of the 9 m thick pay zone. It was stated that the well could flow at a rate in excess of 30,000 barrels of brine per day. The major advantage of a so-called “flowing artesian well”: No pumping may be required as the brine flows to surface under the natural pressure of the aquifer.
Geological strata giving rise to an artesian well. An artesian aquifer is a confined aquifer containing groundwater under positive pressure. This causes the water level in a well to rise to a point where hydrostatic equilibrium has been reached. A well drilled into such an aquifer is called an artesian well. If water reaches the ground surface under the natural pressure of the aquifer, the well is called a flowing artesian well. (Source: Wikipedia)
According to Voltaic’s press-release (February 18, 2016):
“The [Green Energy] Property exists over an extensive area with historic fluid analysis assays ranging from 81-1,700 mg/l lithium in saturated brines. The brine was discovered in the 1960’s when over pressurized oil exploration wells encountered blow-outs upon drilling. Approximately 20 wells have been drilled on the Green Energy Property. Of these, 5 have analytical data for lithium. Historic exploration of the property was conducted by Fidelity Exploration and Production Co., U.S Borax, King Oil Co. and Amerada Co. since the 1960’s. In March 2011, Mesa Exploration completed a NI 43-101 technical report which reviewed the geology and historic work performed on the property. This review concluded that there exists a historic resource estimate of 15 million barrels of brine containing:
• Lithium: 5,750 t (30,535 t Li-Carbonate)
Grade: 1,700 mg/L
• Calcium: 157,000 t
Grade: 46,700 mg/L
• Magnesium: 147,000 t (576,450 t MgCl2)
Grade: 43,600 mg/L
• Potassium: 158,000 t (302,400 t KCl)
Grade: 47,000 mg/L
• Sodium: 96,000 t
Grade: 28,500 mg/L
Lithium occurs at the project in an oversaturated brine (40% minerals, 60% water) and was discovered during oil exploration when drill wells intercepted Bed #31 of the Paradox Formation. Bed #31 is approximately 6,000 feet deep and consists of 30 feet of shale, anhydrite and dolomite; the bed is not part of any oil reservoir.
Engineering reports from the 1960s conclude that the brine reservoir is extensive (over 10 square miles) and is recharged from fresh in-flows as indicated by well pressure measurements, drawdown tests and oxygen-deuterium isotopes.”
Ringing the door bell of opportunity
The melodious sound of lithium metal shine
Over the last couple of weeks, Rockstone was in constant contact with Voltaic’s management team, including Foster Wilson from whom Voltaic acquired the Green Energy (“GE”) Property in February and who is now a director of the company. Earlier today, Rockstone did a short interview with Foster, copied below.
Mr. Foster Wilson has over 30 years of experience in exploration and development ranging from reserve drilling and estimation, feasibility studies, mine permitting and development. He has worked in various capacities for Placer Dome, Echo Bay, American Bonanza Gold and various junior exploration companies and is currently President & CEO of Mesa Exploration Corp. with potash, gold and silver projects in Utah.
Foster, how did you come across the Green Energy Project? What can you tell us about historic work and exploration on the property?
“The Paradox Basin is a world-class potash basin. A few kilometers from the GE Property is the Cane Creek Mine from Intrepid Potash Inc. (current market capitalization: $111 million USD) which is using solution mining techniques today to mine 2 separate potash beds. They mined the first bed with an underground mine until 1975. It converted into a solution mine as it’s much cheaper. Within the last 5 years or so they have done directional/horizontal drilling to the bed below the bed they are mining. So now they are mining from 2 beds. There is another 7 potash beds, so to speak multiple stacks of potash beds.
In 2008, I applied for potash mining rights in the GE property area and part of my due diligence was reading everything I could find about potash, the Paradox Basin, and the GE property in particular. At the Nevada Mackay School of Mines, I ran into a book written in 1965 by the Utah Geologic Survey regarding brines in the area. Only 2 guys before me checked out this book from the library, it wasn’t a best seller! I made a copy and later at some remote gold drilling job I finally found time to start digging into this exotic “brine book” as it was the last thing I wanted to read. Simply because I wasn’t interested in brine. Brine meant nothing to me. I was a gold, uranium, potash guy, but not a brine guy.
I started reading this brine book and found commentary about “blowouts” reported by oil companies, which were drilling on GE looking for oil (and oil only). The reporting on the blowouts was astounding. They recorded a flow of 1 million gallons per day, that’s a whopping 30,000 barrels. The drilled pipe however was only 3 inches (2.5 cm) in diameter. Imagine the natural force coming out of that little hole. Overpressurized. What a beauty.
The historic assays of that brine translate into extremely high dollar values, vastly more valuable than oil.
Information gleaned from the Utah Division of Oil, Gas & Minerals led to a 30 years old report from a person drilling a well 1 km north of GE. The fellow drilling that well was a retired oil tycoon who wanted to look for potash in that area. So he drilled a well for potash and ran into this brine. Then he drilled a new well specifically for that brine. The report then discusses the drilling and brine in detail. He had a Texas oil company reserve engineer helping him out. They did pressure and temperature readings at the brine zone. They also did oxygen isotope analysis of the water. Because they wanted to find out if this water/brine is 200 million years old or just a million years or so.”
Why is that so important?
“If it was 200 million years old water, then it would just be formational water, which was trapped in the formation when it was deposited. If that was the case, it would have been of limited quantity. So if the water was more recent, then it would likely be a recharging aquifer (i.e. potentially huge).”
So how old is it?
“It turned out it was more recent water, like a million years old. So their determination was that it’s a recharging aquifer, practically “unlimited” as they noted.”
What happened with the project thereafter?
“The oil tycoon passed away and his widow somewhat continued this brine project until the 1980s, when she also passed away. And then it just got lost.”
Oil field brines tend to have a difficult chemistry and metallurgy, right?
“Interestingly, the GE project has always been tagged as an “oil field brine”, and everyone in the business knew that oil field brines were never found to have large enough volumes of brines, as historically seen it was never economic. Certainly, such attitudes change automatically with highly elevated market prices as being the case with lithium these past few years. It’s an unique opportunity that others have tagged the GE project (wrongfully) as an oil field brine. The truth and reality is about to get uncovered with Voltaic’s work program starting as of today.
Yes, there is some lithium in the oil field brine zone beneath GE, but there is also another “brine-only zone”, the zone Voltaic is targeting. And it’s a couple thousand feet higher than the oil field brine zone.
During the time of drilling hundreds of wells on and around GE, the area became known as an oil field brine, so no one really paid attention or even interest. The lithium prices were simply not high enough in the past to look at that stuff seriously, which also explains why many of the other wells were not even analyzed for lithium.”
What’s the implication of Voltaic’s targeted brine NOT being an oil field brine?
“The direct implications are volume. The lithium zone that Voltaic is targeting has not much to do with oil. Hence, it’s likely not going to be a little reservoir.”
What about metallurgy and the issue with the high levels of magnesium in your brine-only zone?
“Some 5 years ago, I looked more into the metallurgy of that brine and sent my compiled assay data to some metallurgical specialists. The first one said “your magnesium is high so you will face some problems”. However, 2 other metallurgists said “yes it’s an issue but not insurmountable”. Remember, this was 5 years ago when lithium was trading at $2,000/t.
Today lithium is selling for $20,000/t, and companies like POSCO or Tenova-Bateman have been developing technologies now nearing commercial viability, including for brines with elevated concentrations of other elements, such as bromine, boron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, rare earths, rubidium; elements present at the GE project.
I took the brine assays to an engineering consulting company which produced their own artificial brine with the same chemistry. They concluded that the lithium is extractable and they could do it with some sort of resin they called “spider web resin”, which selectively extracts the stuff you want when lithium goes by.“
Is there another way to get the magnesium out?
“Of course there is. Even a quite simple method. Just take lime or soda ash and it will take your magnesium out of the brine. Unfortunately, most South-American brine projects don’t have access to those kinds of products, and as such the word “magnesium”, in connection with brines, has manifested itself negatively in the minds of many. Fortunately, that part of Utah, where GE is located, has tons of that material readily and cheaply available.”
Thanks a lot for this informative interview, Foster. So if the multi-element and magnesium issue is “not insurmountable”, especially nowadays with higher prices and new technologies on the forefront, then it’s not really Voltaic’s problem, especially at this stage of the project, as Voltaic just wants to prove some really astonishing values. And once such numbers are out, someone may be interested in taking the project, or company, to their own next level, respectively when they think the time is strategically ripe, right?
“That’s correct, Stephan, thanks for the interview.”
Bottom-line: The multi-element and magnesium “issue” is not always problematic but can be highly advantageous and lucrative. If lithium prices stay at levels like today, those “issues“ can be solved, when the time is right to do so. Right now it’s time to localize precise targets on GE for the deep drilling of a few wells, which are expected to qualify for the immediate delineation of a NI43-101 resource estimate at PEA level. The wells could later be used for a potential production.
Now where we at?
GE is different. Here, we are not looking for basin lows as you would do at salars like Clayton Valley. It’s a different world for Voltaic. With Nevada-type brines, you want to own a property in the basin low. Out here in Utah, GE is not about basin lows but about a syncline and an anticline.
The areas surrounding the GE property lie down at the flank of the syncline or even at the bottom of the syncline. However in order to get the pressures and flow volumes, you want to be on the top of the anticline and not at the bottom of it, i.e. the GE property is perfectly situated whereas the surrounding areas may turn out problematic.
For example, the area north of the GE property is made up almost completely of steep cliffs. It’s more a helicopter terrain. All past drill holes in this hostile area were situated on little ridges perched upon very steep cliffs. Exploration will be expensive and difficult, not to speak of production challenges.
There’s a lot of mineral wealth in the area of the GE property. There was an oil and gas company with a project close to the GE property, which had the largest producing oil well on the continental US for like a year long in 2014 or so. They were producing a heck of a lot of oil out here and same success is expected with the brine zone from Voltaic. The dollar values are remarkably high. It’s not just a lithium play, it’s a multi-element project. That’s quite fortunate.
In 2013, Albemarle came out with a little blurp saying that they found a way to get the lithium out of their brine in Arkansas, which is rich in bromine and likely other elements like magnesium, sodium and salt. So Albemarle figured out a way to do it, and their number one product from this brine is bromine. The GE property also hosts a lot of bromine and boron.
Since quite some time, investors are cheering on salars, like the ones in South-America or in the Clayton Valley, which are basically the end-product of a whole bunch of chemical weathering of a big basin and in their case had rhyolite rocks elevated in lithium.
Lithium is not like iron or copper etc. and as such does not like to turn into an oxide. Lithium doesn’t like to do anything with anybody else but with chlorine. So as it weathers down and out of the rhyolite, it turns into clay, especially hectorite and different kinds of mica minerals. However ultimately, as it keeps weathering, it turns into a liquid chlorine, which in turn gets washed down into those salars where it gets concentrated. The salt that comes with it, gets precipitated and deposited along as salt (same happens with the potash getting deposited along). However the magnesium and the lithium, and others like rare earths, don’t like to deposit, so they just stay in the liquid.
The GE property is within the Paradox Basin. Some 250 million years ago, it was a big basin approximately 160 km long and 130 km wide. This basin represents several phases of oceans forming and thereafter drying up. Underneath GE, there are 18 layers of repeating salt and shale units, and within them are 9 different potash zones.
So Voltaic is right there where the productive brine zone is expected, at the contact of a fault which hits the top of the potash and the bottom of the shale unit. The shale is the host unit for this brine, and is about 10-15 feet (3-5 m) thick.
Foster Wilson’s concept is that the GE property intercept represents a fossilized salar. Some 200 million years ago, that ocean dried up completely, so the billion dollar question nowadays is: Where did the lithium go? Where did the rare earths go? It got stuck there. And then the next ocean came along, shale and dolomite was added on top, and it started to dry up again. So you can find repeating layers of salt, potash, shale, etc. over and over again, at least 18 of them. The Paradox Basin Formation can be up to 3,350 m (11,000 feet) thick consisting of those repeating shale, salt and potash units. The Paradox Basin formation beneath the GE property is estimated to be 1,200 m (4,000 feet) thick.
Thus, the GE project has great potential for several stacked fossilized salars, that is to say at the top of every one of these potash beds and at the bottom of those shales you will likely find lithium brine concentrations because those lithium products had to go somewhere. They didn’t just evaporate into the sky.
They are still stuck there. Preserved. And that’s what Voltaic is dealing with here. Fortunately. However, the best part of it is that no one really knows (yet) what the next horizon has. The potential of the GE project is really eyewatering to say the least.
So with a property like GE, you just have to make sure that you are close to those faults because it’s them providing the water.
From a mining perspective, you just have to go along those zones, potentially for miles. Once that’s mined out, you go down to the next potential zone. Oil companies are successfully using horizontal and directional drilling techniques these days. Same could be done with this shale-dolomite host rock, which is about 3 m thick.
However you may not even have to do that horizontal drilling because that formation is really porous. In order to get that much volume and pressurized flow-rates as reported in the past, it may not be necessary to go horizontally.
The historically reported blowouts occurred up in the anticline area where the GE property is. This doesn’t mean that there is no lithium north of the GE property but it will be much more difficult to get it to surface, including pumping.
The GE project is quite the opposite of what for example the Clayton Valley is.
What you want to do at Clayton Valley type salars is to get a property situated on top of the deepest part of the basin where a soft-rock/brine situation exists. With projects like GE you don’t want to be in the low spot but at the high of an anticline (a sequence of domed up rock formations). That’s why this area was drilled up extensively for oil back in the 1950s and 1960s, and even today.
It’s because oil has the tendency to migrate up to those anticlinal domes. And that’s what the brine does too.
North of the GE property is situated down in the syncline. Lithium brines behave a lot like oil and tend to migrate up to the top of the anticlinal dome. That’s why the GE property has been acquired as it is (no other parts near-by are of interest to Voltaic as the property size covers more than the entire dome of the anticline).
With Clayton Valley type deposits, they do gravity surveys to figure out the contours of the basin in order to target for wells to be drilled into this formation.
Voltaic is now using a 3D mining software in order to model the formation tops, structures, etc. The seismic data will help to pinpoint and prioritize drilling targets, which will all help to define where to best drill for the sole purpose to calculate a resource/reservoir estimate. Furthermore, the localized drill targets should be positioned in an optimal way for potential future production.
Lithium investor’s insecurities have been on the rise lately. The Clayton Valley is in trouble because they are having issues with water rights as Clayton Valley is already “overappropriated”. Albemarle filed a detailed protest letter with the Nevada Division of Water Resources, a governmental agency, demanding that no further water rights should be granted in the Clayton Valley as any further pumping will destroy the entire aquifer and lithium deposit. It may appear that Albemarle does not want to allow any competition in the Clayton Valley, however for a good reason. Anyone active there may experience strong resistance from Albemarle and the Nevada government.
Albemarle said that they would have to cease operations as the biggest employer in Esmeralda County if the aquifer gets destroyed by others active in the same formation. Albemarle spent $6 billion in early 2015 to acquire Rockwood Holdings, amongst others operator of the Silver Peak Lithium Mine in the Clayton Valley, North-America’s only active brine based lithium operation. Silver Peak has been mining lithium since the 1960s and as such the Clayton Valley lithium deposit is increasingly depleting (average lithium grades have deteriorated from originally >400 mg/L in the 1960s to an estimated 100-200 mg/L today; Pure Energy’s latest resource estimate averages 102 mg/L lithium and is located only a few hundred meters next to Albemarle’s production wells).
The GE project area has abundant naturally flowing water from the ground.
Moreover, the potential for more than just 1 of those lithium horizons beneath GE is extremely high. Repeat: 18 potential layers (the Paradox Basin Formation is the host rock in which 18 cycles of salt, potash and the lithium host unit occur). Beneath GE there are at least 9 potash beds. A potash bed basically represents the very last “dying” phase of an ancient ocean being dried up.
What Voltaic is likely to have under GE are multiple fossilized salars. These ancient seas had all kinds of minerals dissolved in their sea water and most of them precipitated out, so the final end-stage would be your lithium brine just like the modern salar.
Quite uniquely, Voltaic’s salar was entombed by the next successful layer of shale, dolomite, and then a new ocean came along, and that repeated at least 9 times for potash and about 18 times for salt.
Voltaic envisions to have multiple targets at all of these fossilized salars. The only thing you really need is water to flush it all out. Luckily, there is an east-west structure that runs through the GE property and that’s exactly what the old geologist from back in the days thought was providing the plumbing system. Any parts north of the GE property misses this east-west structure by large.
Rockstone opines the GE property to be the best undeveloped ground in the US outside of the Clayton Valley, which in turn has a limited potential today and any new projects there will likely face severe resistance from Albemarle, which US-based and NYSE-listed company enjoys a quite powerful market capitalization exceeding $9 billion USD.
One of the best parts of the GE brines: The minerals are already in solution (+40% dissolved solids). That’s a lot further than many other projects would ever get.
The Green Energy Property – which covers 1,684 hectares with close proximity to rail head, power and paved roads – is located in the Paradox Basin, in which area where more than 100 oil and gas wells have been drilled in a 80 km wide radius from the property. Oil and gas wells in the area have shown to be capable of flowing in excess of 30,000 barrels of brine per day. Historic wells on the Green Energy Property were reported to be “flowing artesian wells”, i.e. no pumping may be required as the supersatured brines (up to 1,700 mg/L lithium with over 40% dissolved solids close to the property) flow to the surface under the natural pressure of the aquifer. During historic oil and gas exploration, several blowouts occurred when intersecting brines under pressure within the Paradox Formation.
Readers should not rely on the Green Energy Project’s historic resource of 15 million barrels (>2 billion liters) of brine containing 5,750 t lithium (30,535 t Li2CO3 / lithium carbonate), 157,000 t calcium, 576,450 t magnesium chloride and 96,000 t sodium. Instead, Voltaic’s mission to create sharholder value is to re-sample the brines, by either re-entering existing shut-in wells on the property and/or to drill new wells, and subsequently to upgrade the historic resource estimate to NI43-101-compliant standards. This will include metallurgical work, baseline and scoping work and engineering studies.
Management and insiders control over 40% of the issued and outstanding shares.
Management & Directors
Dave Hodge (President)
Mr. David Hodge, President and Director of Zimtu Capital Corp. has an extensive background in business that includes over 20 years of experience in the management and financing of publicly-traded companies. He has been a director of mineral exploration companies since 1996, and serves on the boards of Commerce Resources Corp. and Equitas Resources Corp.
Foster Wilson (Director)
Mr. Wilson has over 30 years of experience in exploration and development ranging from reserve drilling and estimation, feasibility studies, mine permitting and development. He has worked in various capacities for Placer Dome Inc., Echo Bay Mines Ltd., American Bonanza Gold Corp. and various other junior exploration companies. Also currently serving as President of Mesa Exploration Corp.
Darryl Jones (VP Corp. Development)
Mr. Jones has over 15 years of capital market experience and an established financial network. He was an Investment Advisor with PI Financial Corp. Canada and Raymond James Ltd. Canada. Jones was responsible for raising significant risk capital for growth companies in all sectors, with a particular focus on natural resources. He brings a network of contacts within the financial community from across North America and Europe.
Sean Charland (Director)
Mr. Sean Charland is a seasoned communications professional with experience in raising capital and marketing resource exploration companies. His network of contacts within the financial community extends across North America and Europe. Mr. Charland also serves as a Director of Arctic Star Exploration Corp. and Zimtu Capital Corp.
Dušan Berka (P.Eng., Director)
Mr. Berka has over 40 years of international business experience spanning Europe and the Americas with extensive experience in the finance, marketing and administration of public companies, having served as a Director and Officer of various public companies traded on the TSX, TSX Venture and NASDAQ exchanges. A graduate engineer with a M.Sc. (Dipl. Ing.) degree from Slovak Technical University, Bratislava, Slovakia (1968), Mr. Berka has been a member of the Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of British Columbia since 1977. Mr. Berka currently also serves as a Director of 92 Resources Corp., Belmont Resources Inc. and Megastar Development Corp.
The Voltaic team will be presenting today in downtown Vancouver on Tuesday, June 14: Click here to register
If you have not already registered for the Vancouver Commodity Forum and were planning to attend, please do so. I would like to invite you to attend the Vancouver Commodity Forum on June 14. This is a one-day event that will showcase a selection of investment opportunities and feature presentations. We are pleased to now have Gerald McCarvill (Prince Arthur Capital), John Kaiser (Kaiser Research Online), Chris Berry (House Mountain Partners), Jon Hykawy (Stormcrow Capital), Stephan Bogner (Rockstone Research) and Joe Martin (Cambridge House International) as featured presenters.
The voltaic pile then enabled a rapid series of discoveries including the electrical decomposition (electrolysis) of water into oxygen and hydrogen by William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle (1800) and the discovery or isolation of the chemical elements sodium (1807), potassium (1807), calcium (1808), boron (1808), barium (1808), strontium (1808), and magnesium (1808) by Humphry Davy. The entire 19th century electrical industry was powered by batteries related to Volta‘s (e.g. the Daniell cell and Grove cell) until the advent of the dynamo (the electrical generator) in the 1870s.
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power, who is credited as the inventor of the electrical battery and the discoverer of methane. He invented the Voltaic pile in 1799 and the results of which he reported in 1800 in a two-part letter to the President of the Royal Society. With this invention, Volta proved that electricity could be generated chemically and debased the prevalent theory that electricity was generated solely by living beings. Volta‘s invention sparked a great amount of scientific excitement and led others to conduct similar experiments which eventually led to the development of the field of electrochemistry. Alessandro Volta also drew admiration from Napoleon Bonaparte for his invention, and was invited to the Institute of France to demonstrate his invention to the members of the Institute. Volta enjoyed a certain amount of closeness with the Emperor throughout his life and he was conferred numerous honours by him. Volta held the chair of experimental physics at the University of Pavia for nearly 40 years and was widely idolised by his students. Despite his professional success, Volta tended to be a person inclined towards domestic life and this was more apparent in his later years. The SI unit of electric potential is named in his honour as the volt. The volt (symbol V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
Batteries convert chemical energy directly to electrical energy. A battery consists of some number of voltaic cells. Each cell consists of two half-cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations. One half-cell includes electrolyte and the negative electrode, the electrode to which anions (negatively charged ions) migrate; the other half-cell includes electrolyte and the positive electrode to which cations (positively charged ions) migrate. Redox reactions power the battery. Cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode during charging, while anions are oxidized (electrons are removed) at the anode during charging. During discharge, the process is reversed. The electrodes do not touch each other, but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. Some cells use different electrolytes for each half-cell. A separator allows ions to flow between half-cells, but prevents mixing of the electrolytes. Source: Wikipedia “voltaic/battery electricity“
Voltaic Minerals Corp.
Suite 1450 - 789 West Pender Street
Vancouver, BC, V6C 1H2 Canada
Phone: +1 604 681 1568
Shares Issued & Outstanding: 23,434,700
Canadian Symbol (TSX.V): VLT
Current Price: $0.37 CAD (June 13, 2016)
Market Capitalization: $9 million CAD
German Symbol / WKN (Frankfurt): 2P61 / A2AG5Q
Current Price: €0.26 EUR (June 13, 2016)
Market Capitalization: €6 million EUR
Research #3: “Prima Diamond becomes Voltaic Minerals with focus on energy metals” (April 14, 2016)
Research #2: “Early Warning Report on Prima Diamond” (March 18, 2016)
Research #1: “Prima Diamond Acquires the Green Energy Project in Utah with Historic Lithium Grades of 1700 mg/L” (February 18, 2016)
Disclaimer: Please read the full disclaimer within the full research report as a PDF (here) as fundamental risks and conflicts of interest exist.